Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine (BJVM)
Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine
VOL. 9, No 2, JUNE, 2006
L. Sotirov, M. Djorbineva & I. Dimitrov
Effect of C3 genotypes upon the activity of the alternative pathway of complement activation in different sheep breeds
L. Lashev & A. Haritova
Comparative allometric analysis of pharmacokinetics of florfenicol and tiamphenicol
M. Y. Andonova, E. P. Slavov, P. V. Djelebov, V. S. Urumova, K. M. Ivanova & G. M. Sarov
Intravenous glucose tolerance test in dogs with experimental Staphylococcus infection
I. Dinev, M. Lyutskanov, I. Nikiforov & V. Urumova
Cases of porcine proliferative enteropathy in Bulgaria and testing of some alternative methods of diagnostics
Z. Kirkova, D. Georgieva & E. Raychev
Study on the prevalence of trichurosis in different categories of dogs and wild carnivores
G. Simeonova, R. Simeonov, D. Dinev & I. Todorova
Metastatic hemangiosarcoma of the sublumbar lymph nodes causing tenesmus in a dog
(no summary is available)
Volume 9, Number 2, June 2006, Summaries
Cancer is a multistage process with a polyfactorial etiology. Its development results from the effect of various carcinogens such as ionized radiation, chemicals and oncogenic viruses. The impact of many endogenous factors - genetic, immune and hormonal, is also very important. Under the effect of these factors, changes in the DNA of genes often occur. Some dogs probably inherit some of abnormal genes that are precondition for the malignant cell transformation. The risk factors influence either directly or indirectly on tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes.
Some DNA (herpes viruses, papova- and adenoviruses) and RNA viruses (retroviruses) are named tumour viruses as they are proved to cause cancer in infected cells. Unlike viral infections that are related only to some of neoplastic diseases, chemical carcinogens play a role in the development of most forms of cancer. Food contains natural chemicals that could also lead to DNA damage and produce cell alterations. The oncogenic effect of ionized radiation, depending on the dose, type of radiation and the way it was released is beyond any doubt too. Hormones are another endogenous factor important for the development of some cancer types, including mammary gland tumours.
The present review summarizes the available literature data about the etiology and risk factors for development of malignant tumours in dogs and cats.
Key words: etiology, cat, dog, risk factors, tumours
Sotirov, L., M. Djorbineva & I. Dimitrov, 2006. Effect of C3 genotypes upon the activity of the alternative pathway of complement activation in different sheep breeds. Bulg. J. Vet. Med., 9, No 2, 99-105.
The effect of C3 genotypes (FF, FF1, FS, SS) upon the activity of the alternative pathway of complement activation (APCA) was studied in ewes from three different productive types: Milk type - 118 crossings of Stara Zagora ´ East-Friesian and (Stara Zagora × East-Friesian) × Blackhead Pleven sheep and 100 Blackhead Pleven sheep; Merino type - 72 Trakia Merino sheep; Meat type - 107 sheep of each of Ile-de-France and Charollais breeds. The obtained results did not suggest that C3 genotypes had a considerable impact on APCA activity in sheep.
Key words: breeds, C3 genotypes, complement, sheep
Tatli Seven, P. & İ. H. Çerçi, 2006. Relationship between nutrient composition and feed digestibility determined with enzyme and nylon bag (in situ) techniques in feed sources. Bulg. J. Vet. Med., 9, No 2, 107-113.
This study was conducted to determine the effect of crude protein, crude fibre and nitrogen free extracts nutrients as predictors of the digestibility of feeds and to investigate the relations between enzyme and in situ methods.
The investigation was carried out with 35 concentrate feed samples - oat (5), barley (5), wheat (5), maize (5) soybean meal (5), cottonseed meal (5), sunflower meal (5), and 10 hay samples: alfalfa hay (5) and grass hay (5). All the 45 samples were collected from different regions in Turkey. Enzyme and in situ (nylon bag technique) techniques were used to determine the digestibility and degradability of the feeds. By the enzyme technique, the following correlations were estimated: between crude protein levels and organic matter digestibility for forages and protein sources - at r= -0.99 (P<0.01) and r=0.87 (P<0.05) respectively, between crude fibre levels and organic matter digestibility - at r=0.999 (P<0.01) and r= -0.925 (P<0.01), respectively; In the nylon bag technique there were correlations: between crude protein levels and organic matter degradability for forages, protein sources and grains - r=0.990 (P<0.01), r=0.978 (P<0.01) and r= -0.088 (P>0.05), respectively; between crude fibre levels and organic matter degradability for forages, protein sources and grains - at r = -0.990 (P<0.01), r = -0.971 (P<0.01), and r = 0.130 (P>0.05), respectively.
The results of study indicated the strong relationships between feed components and organic matter digestibility/degradability. Besides, high correlations were determined between enzyme and nylon bag techniques.
Key words: digestibility, enzyme technique, nylon bag technique
Comparative investigations upon the allometric relationships between several pharmacokinetic parameters of florfenicol and tiamphenicol and the body weight of various mammalian species have been performed. The resulting allometric equations were as followed: for tiamphenicol, total body clearance ClB=16.44.W0.80, volume of distribution at steady state Vss=0.95.W0.95; biological half-life t1/2=0.82.W0.16. For florfenicol, the respective equations were ClB=6.22.W0.95; Vss=0.92.W0.97, where ClB – total body clearance, Vss – volume of distribution at steady state, t1/2 – biological half-life, W – body weight.
The biological half-life of florfenicol was not statistically significantly dependent on body weight, but the coefficients were similar to those for tiamphenicol and depended on species included in the calculations. It is suggested that there were no statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of both antibiotics and therefore, florfenicol should be preferred because of its pharmacodynamics.
Key words: allometric equations, florfenicol, pharmacokinetics, tiamphenicol
Andonova, M. Y., E. P. Slavov, P. V. Djelebov, V. S. Urumova, K. M. Ivanova & G. M. Sarov, 2006. Intravenous glucose tolerance test in dogs with experimental Staphylococcus infection, Bulg. J. Vet. Med., 9, No 2, 123-131.
Experimental Staphylococcus infection was induced in non-obese male dogs (group А, n=6, initial body weight 13.65±3.32 kg) and subjected to overfeeding (obese) male dogs (group В, n=6, initial body weight – 12.87±1.43 kg). In group B the body weight increased to 16.54±1.67 kg after 90 days of overfeeding on a high-fat diet.
At the end of the 90-day period of overfeeding of group B, Staphylococcus infection was caused by subcutaneous application of 5 mL bacterial suspension (109 CFU/mL) of Staphylococcus intermedius in the lumbar region of dogs from groups A and B.
Some clinical signs – body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate were detected before the infection in groups А and B as well as on post infection hours 3, 24, 48, 72 and day 7 and 14. In all infected animals the site of inoculation of Staphylococcus intermedius was painful, swollen and with elevated temperature. Later, an abscess developed, that turned to a skin erosion of 5-8 cm. Between post infection hours 3 and 72, body temperature, heart and respiratory rates increased in both non-obese dogs (group А) and obese dogs (group B).
The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed by infusion of 40% glucose solution at 0.3 mL/kg for a period of 2 min using pumps in the сephalic vein. Blood samples were collected from the сephalic vein of the opposite forelimb 10 min before infusion (min -10), right before infusion (min 0) and at post infusion min 3, 5, 30 and 60.
The experimental groups were submitted to IVGTT prior to infection and four days after it. The infection in dogs with normal condition (group A) did not have any significant effects on glucose tolerance (GT), while in obese dogs (group B), infection resulted in a significantly increased blood glucose levels by min 30 (7.6 ± 0.4 mmol/L), as compared to blood glucose levels in group А (4.93 ± 0.18 mmol/L) on the same minute.
It is concluded that in our experiment neither obesity nor infection had a significant impact on GT, but the combination of those two factors led to suppressed glucose utilization, that might be indicative of decreased insulin sensitivity.
Key words: dogs, infection, insulin resistance, intravenous glucose tolerance test, Staphylococcus intermedius
Dinev, I., M. Lyutskanov, I. Nikiforov & V. Urumova, 2006. Cases of porcine proliferative enteropathy in Bulgaria and testing of some alternative methods of diagnostics. Bulg. J. Vet. Med., 9, No 2, 133-139.
Clinico-epidemiological investigations were performed in 11 affected pig farms in different regions of the country. The morbidity rate (12.2% to 26.5%) was evaluated on the basis of clinical signs, gross and slaughterhouse findings. Gross pathology, histological (specific stainings) and cytological studies were performed with a view to their application for detecting the disease, All known clinico-morphological forms of manifestation of porcine proliferative enteropathies (PPE) were observed throughout our investigations. The cases of porcine intestinal adenomatosis and regional ileitis predominated (over 80%). Taking into consideration the totality of gastrointestinal problems faced by pig breeding in Bulgaria, it could be stated that the share of PPE was continuously increasing.
Key words: diagnostics, Lawsonia intracellularis, porcine proliferative enteritis, swine
In the period between 2003 and 2005, the prevalence of trichurosis in various categories of dogs and wild carnivores was studied. To this end, 508 coprological samples from dogs aged from 6 months to 14 years from different populated areas in North-east, Central, and South Bulgaria were studied using the flotation method of Fuleborn. Partial helminthological autopsies of the large intestine were performed in 113 foxes and 56 jackals.
Trichuris vulpis infection was found in all studied categories of dogs. The highest extensity of infection was observed in hunting dogs (30%), followed by dogs used as guards of village yards (21.8%), dogs bred in kennels (9%), and home pets (6%).
In the studied wild carnivores, T. vulpis infestation was found in 30.7% of the jackals, and in 12.2% of the foxes.
The results showed that trichurosis is one of the commonest intestinal helminithoses in dogs and jackals.
Key words: dog, fox, jackal, Trichuris vulpis, trichurosis